Why there exists Sun charged particles at the night side of Mars

The Sun is always emitting a continuous stream of charged particles, mainly electrons and protons. Occasionally, eruptions called Coronal Mass Ejections or CMEs occur, with higher density, energy and speed of the ejected particles. These events vary in strength. Strong ones cause dramatic Aurora displays on Earth, and very strong ones can disrupt communications.

An unexpectedly strong blast from the Sun hit Mars Sept. 11, 2017. It sparked a global Aurora at Mars more than 25 times brighter than any previously seen by NASA MAVEN orbiter, which has been studying the Martian atmosphere’s interaction with the solar wind since 2014.

Figure 114. Why there exists Sun charged particles at the night side of Mars

According to NASA site, it measured the collision intensity of Sun charged particles with Mars atmospheric gases before and after the CME event on the “night” side of Mars, and I question: how come there are Sun charged particles at the night side of Mars? NASA cites that an Aurora on Mars can envelope the entire planet because Mars has no strong magnetic field like Earth’s to concentrate the Aurora near polar regions, and I ask again, how can Sun charged particle continuously cover the day and the night sides of the planet both at the same time?

NASA says that Mars has a weak magnetic field. On Earth, the Sun charged particles are mostly trapped in Earth strong magnetic field in the Thermosphere layer. Arriving at high kinetic energy a charged particle can not stand still. According to NASA a charged particle begins to spiral along a magnetic field force line until it reaches one magnetic pole. It then starts a trip back by spiraling along another magnetic field force line towards the other magnetic pole. Figure 61- Protons TrappedOscillation of a particle between the two magnetic poles does not have to follow the same magnetic field force line that it spiraled around at the time its arrival. A particle can carry its spiral path around a magnetic field force line that faces the Sun only to bounce back and pick up a spiral path around another magnetic field force line at random, which could on the day side or the night side of the planet. Along the spiraling paths between the two magnetic poles, the collision of charged particles with one another produces energy the warms up the surface of the planet. The collision of charged particles and atmospheric gases would produce the Aurora lights.

On Earth and due to its strong magnetic field, the entrapment of charged particles takes place at higher altitude and the only chance for charged particles to collide with Earth atmospheric gases is at the two magnetic poles, where magnetic field force lines converge into/ out of Earth and charged particle enter the lower atmospheric altitude; some to collide with air gases and some bounce back towards the other magnetic pole just before collision. On Mars, and due to its magnetic field weakness, the entrapment of charged particles takes place at lower altitude and accordingly the spiraling charged particles collide with Mars atmospheric gases at all times, and whether along the day side and/ or night side magnetic field force lines.

The increase of inflow of charged particles to Mars day side, would result in increased charged particles entrapment and oscillation along Mars magnetic field force lines, primarily on the day side and consequently upon bouncing from the magnetic poles on the day and/ or night sides.

This confirms the presence of a magnetic field on Mars and provides further credibility at the Martian climate model that I introduced earlier in 2009. An extract of which is available on Mars Warming page of this site.

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