Most scientists believe that the Earth magnetic field is not generated out of a permanent magnet but is induced by the electrons that the Inner Core is continuously emitting and which happen to flow in the Outer Core in helical paths thanks to Earth’s spin. However, this does not explain neither the reasons behind the current collapse of the magnetic field over the Northern and Southern hemispheres nor the reasons behind reversed magnetic field in Antarctica that started to emerge 10,000 years ago. Some scientists believe that Earth’s spin started billions of years ago after a nebula collapsed. As the nebula collapsed its fragments began rotating and due to the accretion, which means the growth of a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter; the masses started to impact one another causing an angular momentum leading to keeping the big body spinning. In our everyday experience, it’s the force of friction that tends to stop Earth-bound objects from moving forever. But, for the Earth rotation about its axis, there is no force working to counteract the rotation, so scientists believe that there is no need to have any input energy to keep Earth spinning or to stop it and if it is stopped spinning, it can never spin again. This hypothesis does not explain why Earth’s spin speed over the last 400 years was not constant as it kept slowing down and speeding up by some milliseconds every day. Some other scientists believe that the initial spin came as a result of an epic collision between Earth and another planet that created the Earth angular momentum and forced the planet to spin. Thanks to the accretion theory, the resultant debris assembled together to form the moon, tell those scientists. The saying that accretion helps matter to gravitationally assemble and as a consequence a spin is created is no longer valid since the moon of today does not spin at all about its axis!
What is a Magnet?
The magnetic field results from magnetic monopoles. As its name implies, a magnetic monopole has only one magnetic pole (either a north pole or a south pole). In other words, it would possess a “magnetic charge” analogous to electric charge . It is also found that a magnetic monopole is a stream of photons that oscillate at a specific frequency . The magnetic monopoles of a bar magnet, for example, result from the extra spin of electrons which point in one direction, than from the electrons which point in the opposite direction of electron pairs that lie in the optimal geometrical arrangement of the metal. Roger Penrose explains in his book, The Emperor’s New Mind that the momentum wave function formula, that tells the time and position of a photon, is a corkscrew or helix . Thus one can visualize magnetic attraction and repulsion between two magnets as streams of photons with their corkscrew shaped wave functions screwing into ‘attraction’ or screwing out of ‘repulsion’ with each other. As forces do indeed arise from an exchange of particles, it has been suggested that such streams of photons travel in what we call the magnetic force lines. He also explains that all emitted photons must carry some mass because according to Einstein’s formula E=mc2 where ‘E’ is the energy, ‘m’ is the mass and ‘c’ is the speed of light. Photons exhibit wave-particle duality; i.e. they enjoy and own both wave-like and particle-like properties. Such a wave-particle duality is a central concept of Quantum Physics; the branch of physics that explains the interactions of energy and matter. This duality addresses the inadequacy of classical concepts like “particle” and “wave” in fully describing the behavior of quantum-scale atoms and smaller elements such as photons. A Planck’s formula applies at such minute scale. The formula states that the energy of a travelling photon is proportionate to its frequency E=hf where ‘E’ is the energy, ‘h’ is Planck’s constant and ‘f’ is the photon frequency. Not only because they were colleagues and friends but by putting both Einstein and Planck’s formulae together, we find that the mass of a photon is directly proportionate to its frequency or E=mc2=hf. This means that the higher the frequency of a photon gets, the higher its mass becomes. Since mass in motion creates force, magnetic force is hence produced following Newton second law of motion; F=ma, where ‘F’ is the force, ‘m’ is the mass and ‘a’ is the rate of change of particle velocity with time. Such a force that is established between any two magnets could, therefore, lead to a force that is strong enough to tilt one or the two magnets off their original positions. So, what is the source of Earth Magnetic field, you may wonder?
The Outer Core is Bulged
The internal structure of the Earth, like that of the other terrestrial planets, is chemically divided into layers. The Earth has an outer silicate solid Crust, under which is a highly viscous Mantle. The Earth also has a liquid Outer Core that is much less viscous than the Mantle, and a solid Inner Core. As the Earth spins about its axis, material on the surface of Earth near the planet’s equator must travel farther to make one rotation than material on the surface of Earth near to the spin axis must travel. All material has inertia; i.e. the tendency of a moving mass to continue moving in a straight line until stopped by an external force. This property makes the fast-moving material near the Equator to want to fly off from the planet in a straight line at such high speeds. The rest of the mass of the planet gravitationally attracts such material and keeps it glued to the planet, but the material’s inertia makes the planet to bulge out at the Equator. We should therefore expect that every geological layer is eventually and constantly bulged. The bulge that we observe on the surface is repeated at every geological layer and in various degrees of eccentricity depending on the layer mass and distance from the centre of the Earth. As the Mantle has double the density than that of the Crust and has bigger volume, we expect it to be highly bulged. This allows the Outer Core, fivefold denser viscous liquid, to appear more oblate than the Crust. In all situations the bulge major axis plane is aligned with the equatorial plane.
Electrons flowing from the radio active Inner Core though the low resistance viscous liquid Outer Core prefer to flow along the major axis plane of the bulged Outer Core, before it reached the higher resistance Inner Mantle. In other words most electrons flow along the Equatorial Plane from the Inner Core to the Inner Mantle (A). A magnetic field is thus induced and is constantly maintained by the flow of the electrons in the Outer Core. A known requirement for the induction of a magnetic field is a rotating fluid. Particles moving in a straight line inside a rotating fluid would seem to be moving in circles when observed from an external non-moving frame of reference. Newton’s laws of motion govern the motion of an object in an inertial frame of reference, in which matter remains at rest or stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. However, when transforming Newton’s laws to a rotating frame of reference, the Coriolis force appears, together with the centrifugal force.
Earth’s Two Induced Magnets of South Polarity
The Coriolis force acts in a direction perpendicular to the rotation axis. The force is proportionate to the object’s speed in the rotating frame. The Coriolis force tends to organize fluid motions. Not only does it organize the electrons’ currents in paths that are perpendicular to the rotation axis but also into circular motions around columns that are aligned or parallel with the rotation axis of the rotating frame. Electronic current in any circuit produces magnetic field that is perpendicular to the plane of the electric path. Since most electrons emitted from the Inner Core prefer to surf along the equatorial plane as established earlier as well as pick up paths that are perpendicular to the rotation axis, the magnetic field force lines, that are induced at the centres of the helical path of the electronic currents should be in parallel to the rotation axis of the Earth at all times. The centre point of such magnetic field force lines is called a magnetic pole. When all induced magnetic field force lines are running parallel to the axis of rotation as manifested above, one should expect each magnetic pole to enjoy a fixed location that coincides with each geographical pole. But, this is not the case as we observe the continuously wandering magnetic poles on the surface of Earth (B) .
There is, currently, a 10° gap angle between the Earth’s axis of rotation and the imaginary line connecting the magnetic pole in the Arctic Circle. This gap angle is changing as manifested by the wandering poles. If the magnetic field that we observe on the surface of the Earth arouse from the free electrons flowing through the Outer Core, as most Scientists claimed, then we should expect to observe no gap between the magnetic poles and the axis of the rotation of the Earth! Why then does such an 10° gap angle exist in the Arctic and 23° gap angle exist in the Antarctic? Moreover why is it continuously changing?
Moving objects on the surface of the Earth experience a Coriolis force, and appear to veer to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern hemisphere. Exactly on the Equator, motion east or west, remains precariously along the line of the Equator. Movements of air in the atmosphere and whirlpools in the ocean are notable examples of such a behavior. Rather than flowing directly into the sink, water flows in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and in a clockwise direction in the southern hemisphere. The Coriolis force is responsible for the direction of rotation of large cyclones. In electrical terms, an electric current always flows in an opposite direction to the flow direction of its electrons. Upon applying Coriolis force onto the electric currents that move counterclockwise in the lower half of the Outer Core, a magnetic field is induced in the opposite polarity to the magnetic field that is induced by the clockwise movement of electric current in the upper half of the Outer Core. The induced magnetic field in the upper half would appear as patches of south magnet when measured on the surface in the Arctic Circle. The induced magnetic field in the lower half would appear as patches of south magnet when measured on the surface in Antarctica. In other words and following Coriolis we do get 2 induced magnetic fields of south polarity that appear on the surface of the Earth (C); as shown above.
Plasmoids indicating Magnetic Pole Reversal is a Myth
As the speed of the electric current varies along its 2,200 km (1,367 miles) trip from the Inner Core to the Inner Mantle, the strength of the induced magnetic force lines will also vary and will mostly be observed on the Earth’s surface around the geographical poles at the surface projection area of the Outer Core beneath. The contours shown are the time rate of change of the magnetic strength in the North and South Poles . Full curves show contours where the rate of change of magnetic flux is positive while dotted contours refer to regions where the rate of change is negative. These latter contours are found to partly overlap with regions of Reverse Magnetic Flux where the radial field points in a direction opposite to that expected for a dipole magnetic field. The contours of negative time variation are seen to straddle almost the whole of the Antarctic continental and large expanses of the adjoining ocean areas below South America and South Africa. There remain strong flux points that define the normal north and south magnetic poles as we observe on a typical compass. The research by the scholars of the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Colaba, Mumbai, India goes on to describe four static flux bundles of intense magnetic flux, the two northern ones being located below Arctic Canada and Siberia, and the two southern ones located below Antarctica. This feature makes it impossible for the Earth to have one dipole magnet source no matter what origin it has, the Colaba research tells. These four flux bundles have remained almost stationary for over 250 years. It also describes that over the period 1842 AD to 1980 AD when the magnetic dipole field decayed by 5% in the Arctic, regions of Reverse Magnetic Flux created patches that have increased in size and in intensity. The observation suggests the existence of more than one dipole magnet and that some are riding over in the weakness of others.
Given A, B and C above, there remains one possibility for the source of the single strong magnetic field, whose poles are in constant move as they distinguish themselves on the surface of the Earth; and that is the Inner Core. The following figure illustrates a three magnet configuration that can well explain the mystery of the source of Earth’s magnetism and the driver to the spinning of the planet. The two cylindrically shaped magnetic fields that emerge on the surface of the planet at the orthographic projection of the Outer Core as they are induced by the swamps of free electrons flowing in the Outer Core and the third is a strong dipole magnet that originates from the Inner Core. The fact that while the Crust to spin about the Earth’s axis once every 24 hours, it appears that the magnetic poles are stationary in any one day, which tells that the Inner Core or dipole magnet is not spinning with the rest of the geo payers of Earth contrary to most studies about Inner Core spin speed, let alone spin at all. The regions of negative polarity magnetic field force in the South Pole, also known as Plasmoids started to appear some 10,000 years ago according to the Colaba research. This tells us that earlier than such time, Earth spinning was so slow that the emitted electrons, flowing in the Outer Core did not move in helical paths and accordingly did not induce or generate any magnetic field force.
 Boothroyd, A. (2009). Magnetic monopoles: 70 years from prediction to observation. Institut-Laue-Langevin.
 Ng, S. K. (2002, 10 17). Magnetic monopole is photon. Retrieved from Research Gate- Scientific Network
 Penrose, R., & Gardner, M. (2002). The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds and Physics (Popular Science). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 GlRlJA RAJARAM, T. ARUN, WAY DHAR and A. G. PATIL, 2000, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005, India