Why Temperatures vary at Sea Level?
The Earth has an axial tilt of about 23.44° (23° 26’). The axis is tilted in the same direction throughout the solar year. However, as it orbits around the Sun, the Earth’s hemisphere that is tilted away from the Sun will gradually become tilted towards the Sun while moving on a near circular orbit, and vice versa for the other hemisphere. This effect is the main cause of the four seasons. The hemisphere that is tilted towards the Sun experiences more hours of sunlight each day. The Tropic of Capricorn, or southern tropic, is one of the five major belts or circles of latitude. It marks a region of homogenous temperature on the map of Earth. It lies 23° 26′ south of the Equator, and marks the most southerly latitude at which the Sun appears directly perpendicular on December 21 in an event that is called the Winter Solstice. Due to Earth slight wobbling around its axis, much like a top toy, the Winter Solstice is very slowly moving away from December 21. Equally, in the northern hemisphere, equivalent of the Tropic of Capricorn, there is the Tropic of Cancer at which the Sun appears directly perpendicular on June 21 in an event that is called Summer Solstice. The region north of the Tropic of Capricorn and south of the Tropic of Cancer is known as the Tropics. Therefore, it is the case that the Sun perpendicular appearance on the surface of the planet is confined and is in constant forward and backward movement in the Tropics region. Some believe that the Equator experiences the highest temperature since it is thought to be closer to the Sun than any other region of our planet. However, we should consider that the Earth axial tilt does not make the Equator any closer to the Sun than the southern Middle Latitude Belt during a Winter Solstice for example and at such a time the closest to the Sun would in fact be the region tangent of the orbit plateau of the solar system i.e. on the Tropic of Capricorn that is not as hot as the Equator. Some question what makes the Equator to become the hottest place on Earth when measured at sea level at all times? Some attribute the angle of projection between the solar rays and the surface of the Earth to influence the temperature variation.
The angle of projection starts from 90° at the region tangent to the orbit plateau of the solar system and grows smaller until it reaches 0° at the region perpendicular to the orbit plateau of the solar system. This does not explain why the surface region that is located at 90° (degree) with respect to the solar energy, i.e. at the Tropic of Capricorn during a Winter Solstice, to have less temperature than at the Equator, where the temperature is currently highest while the angle of projection is less than 90°! Lying between the two tropics, and if the angle of projection and/ or proximity to the solar energy are the drivers of high temperature, the Equator could only have the chance, once every six months, to get situated at a right angle, closest to the Sun. This should not make of it the hottest place on Earth all year round; but it is! As shown in Figure 16, on a Winter Solstice day, when region y (Equator) is at the same distance and angle of projection from the Sun as region x (southern Middle Latitude Belt); why then, do they have a difference in temperature? And what does make region y (Equator) the hottest place on Earth all year round; while the nearest region to the Sun, region z (Tropic of Capricorn), experiences a lower temperature? You may eventually ask, what makes temperature difference across the surface of Earth altogether, when measured at sea level?
Where is the Heat that reaches Earth’s Surface coming from?
Radiant energy is defined as the feeble energy carried along and within Sun emitted photons passing through to Earth’s surface. Scientists claim that the Radiant energy is the major source of heat reaching Earth’s surface. What if there is a more primary and stronger source of thermal radiation that is much closer to the surface of Earth than the Sun? We know that the Sun is situated 150 million km (93 million miles) away from Earth and that it has a surface temperature of 6,000° Kelvin. We also know that the Thermosphere layer is situated at 100-800 km (62-500 miles) above the surface of Earth, and that it carries a temperature up to 2,000° Kelvin. Could the thermal radiation arriving to the surface of Earth from the Thermosphere layer be much larger than that arriving from the Sun? Only a fraction of the total power emitted by the Sun falls on an object in space, Earth, which stands at a distance from the Sun. The solar irradiance in Watt/m2 is the power density incident on Earth due to radiation from the Sun. At the Sun’s surface, the power density is that of a blackbody; a body that emits radiation energy uniformly in all directions per unit area normal to direction of emission, at about 5,700o Celsius (6,000o Kelvin) . The total power from the sun is this value multiplied by the Sun’s surface area. However, at some distance from the Sun, the total power from the Sun is spread out over a much larger surface area and therefore the solar irradiance on an object in space decreases as the object is situated further away from the Sun. For instance the total power from the Sun reaching Mars at 227 million km (142 million miles) distance is much less than that reaching Earth at only 150 million km (92 million miles) far
Taking Earth orbit from the Sun as D, the solar irradiance on Earth is found by dividing the total power emitted from the Sun by the surface area over which the sunlight falls. The total solar radiation emitted by the Sun is given by σT4, as defined by the Boltzmann’s blackbody equation multiplied by the surface area of the Sun (4πR2Sun) where RSun is the radius of the Sun. The surface area over which the power from the Sun falls will be 4πD2. Therefore, the solar radiation intensity, HE-T in (Watt/m2) incident on the Earth looks as follows;
- HE-S is the radiation intensity (in W/m2) at the Earth’s Troposphere due to radiation received from the Sun.
- HSun is the radiation density at the Sun’s surface (in W/m2) as determined by Stefan-Boltzmann’s blackbody equation E= σT4 ; where σ = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2 x K4
- T is the temperature of the surface of the Sun at 6,0000 Kelvin
- RSun is the radius of the Sun in meters as shown in the formula above; and
- D is the distance from the Sun to the Earth’s surface in meters.
It is therefore found that the radiation intensity reaching the Earth from the Sun is 1,366 Watt/m2.
When we apply the same ratio of the Troposphere Heat/ Latitude Distribution onto the Thermosphere which reaches 1,700o Celsius (2,000o Kelvin) above the magnetic equator, we find that the temperature at the Thermosphere region that is situated above the magnetic poles would reach 180o Celsius (450 Kelvin). Following a similar approach to that of the Sun/ Earth radiation as explained above, I built an empirical model for the thermal radiation or heat exchanged at the surface of Earth from the Thermosphere. It shall not come as a perfect sphere but as an ellipsoid, given the parabolic shape of the Heat/ Distribution graph above
- HE-T is the radiation intensity (in W/m2) at the Earth’s Troposphere due to radiation received from the Thermosphere.
- T is the temperature of the mid distance between the two magnetic poles at the Thermosphere and is taken at average of the highest of 1,700o Kelvin and the lowest of 450o Kelvin i.e. 1075 Kelvin.
- Sheat ellipsoid in thermosphere is the highest thermal radiation region of the Thermosphere that is modeled as an ellipsoid of radii equal to the weakest magnetic contour at 24 mTesla (600 km, 1800 km) and depth of 200 km (where most of the Sun’s charged protons get trapped), and is calculated as per following, S = 4 π [(ap bp + ap cp + bp cp)/3] 1/p ; where p=1.6075 and a= 600 km, b= 1800 km, c= 200 km.
- Sheat ellipsoid reaching Earth surface is the reach of the thermal radiation area from the Thermosphere which is half of the surface area of Earth which equals to ½ πr2; where r is the radius of Earth standing at 6000 km.
- The selection of the highest thermal radiation as an ellipsoid within the Thermosphere layer is driven by the shape of the ion map measured for the Thermosphere layer at http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/models/modelinfo.php?model=CTIPe
It is therefore found that the radiation intensity, which reaches Earth from the Thermosphere is 2,596 Watt/m2. This means that the thermal radiation reaching Earth’s surface from the Thermosphere is approximately 1.8 fold stronger than that reaching Earth from the Sun directly. The collision of oscillating Sun’s protons when spiraling between the two magnetic poles, day and night, keeps the Thermosphere thermal radiation uninterrupted, though decaying at night. Such a phenomenon keeps Earth surface temperature safe from sharp drop at nights when the day on Earth gets longer.
Why is the Thermosphere that hot?
As the Sun ejects mass-energy of heavy particles such as electrons and protons, the magnetic field at the Thermosphere layer shields such energetic bodies. The trapped protons, full of kinetic energy, have no place to go but to spiral along the magnetic field lines while they are travelling between the two magnetic poles. As protons encounter regions of stronger magnetic field where field lines, they converge at the magnetic pole, protons spiral-radius is shortened and their speed slowed down, before bouncing back in the direction of the other magnetic pole and possibly colliding with other protons on the path. Thermal radiation coming from such collisions gradually decay above the sky of a specific region of Earth’s surface for the rest of the day including after sunset.
In summary, protons reach the minimum spiral-radius and speed at each of the magnetic poles, where the magnetic field intensity is highest. Collisions between such spiraling protons with one another at the Thermosphere at various speeds produce thermal energy and temperatures that are proportionate to the protons speed and spiral-radius motion. Temperature is found to reach 180° Celsius above the magnetic poles and to gradually escalate to reach to a maximum of 1,700° Celsius above the magnetic equator. This makes the region of magnetic equator to always maintain the highest temperature on the surface of the planet and for the regions of the magnetic poles to maintain the lowest temperature. The trapped, oscillating Sun’s protons between the two magnetic poles, day and night, keeps the Thermosphere thermal radiation uninterrupted, though decaying over nights. Such a phenomenon keeps Earth surface safe from sharp drop in temperature at nights. If it had not magnetic field to trap the protons, Earth’s surface would have been bombarded during the day with continuous flow protons and the day temperature would have not been different from the moon’s, which has no magnetic field and a day temperature of 123o Celsius. Equally at nights, if Earth had no magnetic field to trap the protons and keep them travelling between its two magnetic poles, colliding with one another and generating thermal radiation to keep a warm surface, Earth temperature at nights would have not been different from the moon nights, where the temperature reaches -233o Celsius.
The collapse of Earth’s magnetic field in the western and southern hemispheres leads to an increase in the protons speed and spiral-radius motion around the magnetic force lines. More chances are created for the protons to collide with one another at a higher speed. The impact of stronger collisions at higher speeds, results in higher thermal energy reaching Earth’s surface; Global Warming is thus observed. It is imminent, therefore, that a change in the temperature pattern and precipitation map of the planet will follow any change or repositioning of the magnetic poles and the associated magnetic field intensity; causing Climate Ex-change; as some countries experience warmer than earlier average temperatures such as North America and others experience cooler than earlier average temperatures such as Siberia, in the past few winters. The combined effect of the weakening and the tilting of Earth’s magnetic field lower its intensity above the North Pole ice cap. The lower the intensity and number of the magnetic field force lines, the longer spiral-radius motion and the faster the speed will protons pick up. A higher thermal energy is generated upon such protons’ collision with one another in the Thermosphere layer. A similar model could be applied onto planet Mars, where at the same time the ice cap is melting on Earth, the ice cap is melting on Mars.
The Difference between Global Warming and Climate Exchange
|The magnetic field has weakened in the western hemisphere on average by 10% between the years 1850 and 2000. Additional collapse of 5% is added in the last decade. The weaker the field, the longer spiral-path around the magnetic field force lines, while the protons oscillate between the two magnetic poles. The longer protons travel, the more probability to collide with one another in the Thermosphere layer, whose temperature will rise above the minimum/ maximum marks of +180o / +1,700o Celsius. A higher thermal energy will reach the surface of Earth, causing overall increase in average temperature.||The magnetic pole is moving away from Canada towards Siberia at a much higher rate than last century. The whole magnetic field tilts accordingly and brings the Thermosphere temperature map to tilt along. This results in shifting of the Temperature Belts on the surface of Earth, causing Climate Exchange where regions will experience change of Temperature according to the Thermosphere temperature map.|
Given the manuscripts, which come from ancient texts that describe a bitter cold wave that occurred between the years 900 AD and 950 AD, in Arabia, we find an obvious climate zone similarity between current date Europe and ancient date Arabia in the years between 900 AD and 950 AD, as we centre the Temperature Belts around the location of the magnetic pole.
This suggests an obvious indication that Temperature Belts follow the Thermosphere temperature which follows the magnetic field intensity, which is driven by the locations of the two magnetic poles. This proves that Global Warming and Climate Change are not completely anthropogenic.